Serum magnesium

Serum albumin

Serum calcium and parathyroid hormone

MEDICAL RESEARCH
Medical Research

Serum sodium and potassium

Serum sodium and potassium

There was a statistically significant increase in the mean level of serum sodium between the beginning of the clinical trial and the end of the clinical trial 12 weeks later (0.0153 mmol/L/day; p < 0.0001).  This significant increase in serum sodium occurred even though all waters consumed were devoid of sodium.

There was a statistically significant increase in the mean level of serum potassium between the beginning of the clinical trial and the end of the clinical trial 12 weeks later (0.0015 mmol/L/day; p < 0.0028).  This significant increase in serum potassium occurred even though all waters consumed were devoid of potassium.  The mean level of serum potassium tended to increase more in those people consuming water with added magnesium compared to people consuming water without magnesium.  From two weeks to 12 weeks of water consumption the differences in serum potassium became statistically significant (p = 0.04).

When 6 to 8 glasses of water per day are consumed, kidney function achieves optimal cell hydration by increasing specific osmotic solute concentrations, such as sodium and potassium, in extracellular fluids (plasma, interstitial fluid). Hydration blunts the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH).  The absence of ADH allows sodium and potassium to be reabsorbed from the kidney tubule system without the reabsorption of water from the collecting ducts (that is, results in water diuresis or ‘aquaresis’).

It is known that elevated extracellular potassium concentrations inhibit decreases in cell volume and prevent the activation of apoptotic processes (programmed cell death processes).  It is known also that elevated extracellular potassium concentrations produce relatively large changes in the cell resting membrane potential.  In excitable cells such as neuromuscular tissue (nerve, muscle, heart) elevated extracellular potassium increases membrane excitability because less of a depolarizing stimulus is required to generate an action potential.  This is of vital importance in the maintenance of cell and organ function in the elderly and in the prevention of cell loss in organs such as the brain.

Sodium (mmol/L)

Mean of

SERUM SODIUM

by treatment group and study day

Water with magnesium added

Water devoid of calcium

and magnesium

Mean of

SERUM POTASSIUM

by treatment group and study day

Potassium  (mmol/L)

Water with magnesium added

Water devoid of calcium and magnesium

Day

COMMERCIAL ENERGY RESEARCH

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